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Stonehenge

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Stonehenge

Bài gửi by ducthien_dinh on Sat Sep 19, 2009 3:52 pm

Introduction

Stonehenge is a megalithic monument on the Salisbury Plain in Southern England, composed mainly of thirty upright stones (sarsens, each over ten feet tall and weighing 26 tons), aligned in a circle, with thirty lintels (6 tons each) perched horizontally atop the sarsens in a continuous circle. There is also an inner circle composed of similar stones, also constructed in post-and-lintel fashion.

Stonehenge Megaliths


In the 1940s and 1950s, Richard John Copland Atkinson proposed that construction occurred in three phases, which he labelled Stonehenge I, II, IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc. This sequence has recently been revised in Archaeological Report (10) published by English Heritage [ Phase I (2950-2900 BCE) ].

Image courtesy of the GoogleEarth [ http://earth.google.com ]

Constructed without the use of draft animals and shaped by stone tools,
Stonehenge was erected many miles from the quarry from which the stones came.
It is an amazing feat of engineering, and many stories, both old ones and retellings, frequently name Merlin as this engineer. This is due largely to one Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis), a historian of the 12th century, who wrote a book titled The History and Topography of Ireland.

Stonehenge satellite photo curtsey of ©️ Space Imaging LLC

Stonehenge satellite photo curtsey of ©️ Space Imaging LLC

Gerald called Stonehenge "The Giant's Dance," because he had heard stories that giants brought the stones from Africa to Ireland, and built the monument (by some accounts on Mount Kildare, and by others "at Ophela, near the castle of Nas" (O'Meara, ). Later, Gerald said, Aurelius Ambrosius, king of the Britons, had Merlin bring the stones to Britain.
However, the archaeological evidence at Stonehenge simply does not support an Arthurian date of construction. The archaeology points to a construction date between 5,000 and 3,000 years ago (more than likely, several construction dates over this time). Stonehenge is angled such that on the equinoxes and the solstices, the sun rising over the horizon appears to be perfectly placed between gaps in the megaliths. This is doubtless not an accident, and probably contributed to the stories of its mysterious origins.

Photo Courtesy of ©️ Martin Gray

Photo Courtesy of ©️ Martin Gray



Stonehenge: Eclipse Computer?



Plan of Stonehenge with the Aubrey holes, the Heel Stone, and the Station Stones 91, 92, 93, 94 marked (image from Rodney Castleden The Making of Stonehenge. London and New York: Routledge, 1993. p. 30)




Gerald Hawkins, a Professor of Astronomy, concluded that Stonehenge was a sophisticated astronomical observatory designed to predict eclipses (Stonehenge Decoded). The positioning of the stones provides a wealth of information, as does the choice of the site itself. If you can see the alignment, general relationship, and the use of these stones then you will know the reason for the construction. The author, and other astronomers, discovered the 56-year cycle of eclipses by decoding Stonehenge!
The movement of stones once each year from an initial fixed position allows to predict accurately every important lunar event for hundreds of years. This computer would need resetting about once every 300 years by advancing the stones by one space. Mankind generally used the cycle of the moon as a unit of timekeeping.
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Re: Stonehenge

Bài gửi by ducthien_dinh on Sat Sep 19, 2009 3:53 pm

The following material was adapted from ECLIPSE by Bryan Brewer

Every year on the first day of summer, the Sun rises at a point that is farther north than on any other day of the year. At the ruins of Stonehenge in England, this solstice sunrise appears on the horizon in direct alignment with the massive heel stone. This is the most outstanding feature of this ancient monument, built during the same era as the Great Pyramid of Egypt. There is little doubt that the builders of Stonehenge used it to mark this special day as the beginning of each year. By counting the number of days between these annual alignments, they could determine the length of the year. This could serve as a practical calendar to mark holidays and seasonal festivals and to ensure the timely planting and harvesting of crops.
But to predict eclipses, knowledge of two other cycles is required. One of these -- the length of the lunar month -- is easily determined. It is simply the number of days between one full Moon and the next. This cycle of 29-1/2 days is marked at Stonehenge by two rings of 29 and 30 holes, which together average 29-1/2. The other cycle, however, is of an altogether different character: it is a cycle of rotation of two invisible points in space. The evidence shows that the builders of Stonehenge probably discovered this cycle and could have used it to predict eclipses.
These two invisible points in space are called the lunar nodes (from the Latin for "knot"). They are the points where the Moon's orbit, which is tilted at a slight angle, intersects the plane of the Earth's orbit. It would have taken many decades of watching countless risings and settings of the Moon to figure out the cycle of the lunar nodes. This information -- which must have been passed on from generation to generation -- is preserved at Stonehenge. All the Moon alignments necessary for determining this cycle are marked by massive stones.
Who were these people who observed this subtle cycle even before the first metal tools were used by humankind? Some have suggested that Stonehenge was built by Druids, but we don't really know much about the builders. We do know that the actual motions of the Sun and the Moon are reflected in the structure of Stonehenge, and we can reason how it may have been used to keep track of these cycles. The number of stones or holes in the ground in the various rings around Stonehenge each represents a certain number of days or years in the cycles. By moving markers (such as stones) around a ring in time with the cycles, the positions of the Sun and Moon -- and the two invisible points -- can be tracked. (The details of this method are explained in Chapter 2 of the book ECLIPSE, by Bryan Brewer.)
An eclipse can occur only when the Sun is close to being aligned with a node. By using Stonehenge to keep track of the position of the Sun and the nodes, these "danger periods" for eclipses can be predicted. A new (or full) Moon appearing during one of these periods would call for a special vigil to see if the solar (or lunar) eclipse would be visible from Stonehenge. A total solar eclipse would be a rarity. But the law of averages confirms that either a partial solar eclipse or a lunar eclipse can be seen (weather permitting) from the same point on the Earth about once every year.
Why would eclipses have been so important to the ancient people of Stonehenge? Perhaps they considered the darkening of the Sun or the Moon a fearsome event -- a celestial omen of doom or disaster. Many cultures have interpreted eclipses this way. But the sophistication of the astronomy of Stonehenge suggests that the builders had something different in mind. Their understanding of the solar and lunar cycles must have led to a high regard for the cosmic order. Eclipses may have been seen as affirmations of the regularity of these cycles. Or perhaps the unseen lunar nodes formed an element of their religion as invisible gods capable of eclipsing the brightest objects in the heavens.
The idea that Stonehenge may have been a center for some kind of worship has occurred to many. It is not hard to imagine Stone Age people gathering at a "sacred place" at "sacred times" (such as solstices, equinoxes, and eclipses) to reaffirm their religious beliefs through ritual practices. British antiquarian Dr. William Stukeley, who in 1740 was the first to note the summer solstice alignment at Stonehenge, advanced the notion that the monument was built by Druids to worship the serpent. He claimed that Stonehenge and similar stone circles had been serpent temples, which he called "Dracontia." Could this serpent symbolism be related to eclipses? Recall that the key to eclipses is the position of the lunar nodes. The length of time for the Moon to return to a node (about 27.2 days) astronomers call the draconic month. (Draco is the Latin word for "serpent" or "dragon.) Perhaps the mythical serpents of Stonehenge and the legendary dragon that eats the Sun are symbols of the same thing: the invisible presence in time and space that eclipses the Sun and the Moon.
The material above was adapted from ECLIPSE by Bryan Brewer

Modern scientific investigations show that Earth has been hit many times by objects such as comets and meteorites. Laboratory work on comet impact effects demonstrates that comets could cause tidal waves to exceed three miles tall and near 400 miles per hour. In the last 10,000 years, there have been two impacts of such proportion: a seven-fold impact into all the world's oceans around 7640 B.C., and a single impact into the Mediterranean Sea about 3150 B.C., the time of Noah's Flood.
Christopher Knight, Robert Lomas (Uriel's Machine) prove that ancient Europeans not only survived the 7640 B.C. flood, but developed a highly advanced civilization dedicated to predicting and preparing for future meteoric impacts. Building an international network of sophisticated astronomical observatories, these ancient astronomers created accurate solar, lunar, and planetary calendars, measured the diameter of the Earth, and precisely predicted comet collisions years in advance. This was the true purpose of megalithic structures such as Stonehenge. In 3150 B.C., the ancients' predictions proved true, and their device- Uriel's Machine-allowed the reconstruction of civilization in a shattered world.
Uriel's Machine also presents evidence that:
* There was a single global language on Earth
* A single female was a common ancestor to all living humans
* Angels bred with human women to create The Watchers, giant half-human beings
* The oral tradition of Freemasonry records real events
A fascinating study of humankind's past, present, and future, Urie/'s Machine proves the world was indeed flooded, but survived wholly due to these ancient Europeans, their heavenly knowledge, and one remarkable machine.
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Re: Stonehenge

Bài gửi by ducthien_dinh on Sat Sep 19, 2009 3:55 pm

Location: 51° 11' N 1° 49' W
Many Stonehenge alignments exist which undoubtedly indicate the astronomical significance of Stonehenge's construction. The axis of Stonehenge aligns approximately to the midsummer rising sun azimuth.
Stonehenge is a megalithic monument on the Salisbury Plain in Southern England, composed mainly of thirty upright stones (sarsens, each over ten feet tall and weighing 26 tons), aligned in a circle, with thirty lintels (6 tons each) perched horizontally atop the sarsens in a continuous circle. There is also an inner circle composed of similar stones, also constructed in post-and-lintel fashion.

Fig. 1 Fig.1b


Fig. 1c The axis of Stonehenge aligns approximately
to the midsummer rising sun azimuth.




Fig. 3 Aerial View of Stonehenge
Source:
http://www.lundyisleofavalon.co.uk/stonehenge/stnpik01.htm





- - -

In the foregoing picture a line (blue) originating at Stonehenge's centre, dissects the centre of the Heel stone. The azimuth angle of this line, off North, is 51.18333333-degrees, which equates to 51 degrees, 11 minutes. This is the official latitude designation for Stonehenge (51 deg. 11 minutes).
Note how the line relates to the Avenue set of circles (magenta) and brushes the northern side of the large post marker adjacent to the Avenue circles. A nearby line of posts extends toward the Heel Stone, as if to indicate this "latitude" line.
It is normal carpentry or surveying practice to have "sighting-lines" run to the "side" of pegs or posts, rather than to the centres, as far greater accuracy is achieved and the surveyor is able to visually verify the accuracy of the full alignment. When a line runs to the centre of a stone, the stone itself will generally have a peaked or pointed top to finitely indicate the refined intended position of the alignment.

Another circle of immense importance, which links Stonehenge to the Lunar codes of the Khafre Pyramid of Egypt. It will be noted that this circle (2nd inward red) brushes two component positions on the Avenue, one of which has the official designation "B". The diameter of this circle is 472.5 feet, which is exactly the intended vertical height of the Khafre Pyramid of Egypt. The base measurement of Khafre was 15/16ths that of the Great Pyramid or 708.75 feet. It was also built to a 3,4,5 triangulation code, with 1/2 the base length acting as the adjacent (354.375 feet), the vertical height acting as the opposite (472.5 feet) and the diagonal face acting as the hypotenuse (590.625 feet).

Each of these values was in deference to the lunar month and lunar year (based upon 29.53125 days per lunar month or 345.375 days per lunar year).

The diameter of this Stonehenge circle is, therefore, coding the height of the Khafre Pyramid in increments of 16 X 29.53125-days/ feet. This value of 472.5 days was also integral to the ancient method of measuring the 18.613-year lunar nutation cycle, which was calibrated to endure for 6804-days (230.4 lunar months of 29.53125-days or 14.4 time periods of 472.5-days duration). Note also that 230.4 is an expression of the very important ancient number 11.52.
- - -

The Stonehenge Observatory



http://www.stonehengeobservatory.com/ this site compliments new book
The Stonehenge Observatory
to be published in June 2008. The site includes fully interactive 3D models for viewing Stonehenge as it is and as it would have appeared as an observatory, as well as an animated 3D reconstruction of its destruction where users can view the impact on individual stones.


This completely new insight explodes the present archeological interpretation of a monument built by the inhabitants of Neolithic Britain. Through state-of-the-art software The Stonehenge Observatory brings the site to life, exploring every feature of the design to challenge the perceived dates and methods of construction, and original purpose as a ritual place of worship or temple aligned on the midsummer sunrise. The conclusion is stunning in its simplicity.
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